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CONTOH KANDUNGAN BUKU

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract 2

Acknowledgments 3

Table of Contents 4

List of Symbols 6

Chapter

1 Introduction 8

1.1 Motivation 8

1.2 Polymer Gel Actuation 9

1.3 Objective 10

2 Background 12

3 Dynamic Model of Polymer Gel for Control System 16

3.1 Introduction 16

3.2 Dynamic Model of Non-Electrolyte Gel 20

3.2.1 Mixing/diffusion process: Flory's model 22

3.2.2 Rubber elasticity: Flory's model (statistical thermodynamics) 27

3.2.3 Rubber elasticity: simple mechanical model 30

3.2.4 Overall process: mixing/diffusion and deformation 35

3.2.5 Polymer gel swelling kinetics 35

3.3 Dynamic Model of Electrolyte Gel 39

3.3.1 Equilibrium conditions 39

3.3.2 Chemical capacitance model 43

3.3.3 Electric potential capacitance model 44

3.3.4 Kinetic model 49

3.3.5 Ion diffusion limited reaction 53

3.3.5 Overall ion transport process: binary solution case 60

3.3.6 Ionic contribution and electrolyte gel swelling 65

4 Model Verification 69

4.1 PVA-PAA in Acetate Buffer Solution 69

4.1.1 Acetate buffer chemistry 70

4.1.2 PVA-PAA gel preparation 75

4.2 Equilibrium swelling model verification 75

4.2.1 Equilibrium swelling model 75

4.2.2 Experimental procedure 77

4.2.3 Experimental result 78

4.2.4 Model parameter estimation 82

4.2.5 Model result 84

4.2.6 Discussion 92

4.3 Swelling kinetics model verification 96

4.3.1 Limiting process identification procedure 97

4.3.2 Experimental result 100

4.3.3 PVA-PAA gel dynamic model 101

4.3.4 Model simulation and discussion 104

5 Implementation 111

5.1 Demonstration actuator device 111

5.2 Results 113

6 Conclusion 117

6.1 Review 117

6.2 Contributions 123

6.3 Future 123

Appendix

A Actuator system design 126

B PAN fiber mechanical testing 140

References 148